It’s all about the ideas
The history of perforating has been driven by great ideas and here at Delphian Ballistics we celebrate ideas with total commitment in all aspects of the business to innovative thinking.
TriStim itself is founded on one simple concept and our organised programme of research & development is what brought about the fully commercialised product. Research & development is our life blood and we remain committed to an ongoing programme of R&D that is focussed on ensuring TriStim delivers the best possible productivity increases during perforation.
Some of our previous R&D successes include the following activities.
Finite Element Modelling confirms the potential benefits of a convergent ballistics effect
Our early R&D was mathematical and used Finite Element Modelling to evaluate the interaction of convergent ballistic shock waves and assess the benefits of that interaction for potential productivity increases.
The energy state of TriStim’s combined three charge shockwave was shown to deliver a significant increase in the pressure boundary condition, resulting in a wider perforation channel, and importantly enabling the break-up of the rock matrix between the perforation channels, giving an improved internal architecture to the perforation channel.
Optimised perforating tunnel geometry
TriStim convergence delivers tunnel geometry benefits that include;
- 85% Increased perforated area
- 3x’s (300%) Increased perforation tunnel volume
- 10% Increased penetration
API 19B Section IV testing validates the benefits of a convergent approach under ‘real well’ conditions
Having proven that the predicted ballistic effects and associated geometry enhancements are in fact real, we moved on to fire the gun in real rock under real well conditions at the DynaEnergetics API RP-19b Section IV testing facility in Germany.
Section IV tests are the industry’s standard way of measuring perforator performance in real well conditions with test standards defined by the API (American Petroleum Institute).
Over 40 validation tests of TriStim were conducted utilising API 19B Section IV test protocols where charges were shot into reservoir type rocks (e.g. sandstones, carbonates and shales) whilst subjected to pressure and stress effects equivalent to real well scenarios.
The Section IV testing demonstrated the performance differences between conventional and TriStim systems in terms of flow performance, penetration, tunnel volume, and other aspects of perforation geometry.
Tunnel geometry showed significant improvements over the conventional results.
|Area Increase (%)||–||84%|
|Vol. Increase (%)||–||300%|
This graph shows two phases of testing. The 5 TriStim results to the right used the most recent version of the TriStim hollow assembly that has been mechanically certified.
Overall, the conventional perforation showed 25% better flow than the unperforated rock. The TriStim perforation showed 90% better flow that the unperforated rock. These numbers are described in the Productivity Ratios given below.
|PR Increase (%)||–||39%|
Flow through these rocks after TriStim perforation showed greater than a 50% increase in productivity and post-test analysis of the rock cores themselves showed a significant increase in tunnel volume and depth of penetration.
Thin Section Analysis
During the perforating process, rock at the edges of the tunnel becomes damaged, or crushed (perforation skin).
In addition to the Section IV analysis, thin sections of rock were taken of various parts of the perforated rock and examined under an electron microscope to assess a) the thickness of the crushed zone, and b) the permeability of the crushed zone.
TriStim was shown to create less perforation damage effects and these numbers were used for the CFD analysis.
Computational Fluid Dynamics verifies that the Section IV results can be extrapolated across an entire well
The final part of the R&D process used computer modelling to extrapolate the Section IV test results across an entire well in order to predict the resulting flow in real well conditions.
These CFD tests were conducted independently by Lloyds Senergy.
CFD is computer based numerical analysis of fluid flow. CFD modelling of conventional and TriStim perforations was conducted to corroborate the results of the section IV testing.
These independent results also demonstrated productivity improvements to the well of greater than 50%.
Development of a new gun system design that is capable of deploying TriStim successfully
In order to meet all test standard requirements, the TriStim gun had to undergo a significant re-engineering exercise. This resulted in the new patented gun system, which now incorporates the innovative meshed convergent charge loading.
The new design means that TriStim is easily manufactured, employing current standard gun system manufacturing techniques, using standard materials. Everything within the TriStim system is both rigorously tested and field proven.
The TriStim gun system has been fully tested in accordance with API testing standards and is now available in 2 7/8”, 3 1/8” & 4 1/2” sizes. More information on the gun system in the TriStim Product Specification.