TriStim also delivers greatly improved perforating tunnel geometry. Not simply deeper penetration and increased tunnel volume, but also a cleaner tunnel with greatly reduced perforating skin.
How does TriStim achieve this?
In conventional perforating, the rock is plastically deformed – in effect, pushed out of the way. The result? A compressed and damaged formation that leaves a crushed zone of reduced permeability. Impeding flow.
With TriStim’s 3-charge arrangement, shock waves from the upper and lower charges combine to weaken the rock in the focal region of the tunnel axis. Shock waves from the middle charge deliver an altogether different effect. The consequence of this is rubblisation, no crushed zone and deeper penetration.
As a bonus, the combined shock waves deliver a pulverising effect which means that the weakened material is rubblised/pulled apart resulting in no crushed zone effect in the region where the shock waves converge.
Finite element modelling demonstrates the differences between a conventional shot and a TriStim shot.
Shockwave effect from conventional perforation
The energy state of the shock wave essentially reduces to a point where it can no longer overcome the strength of the surrounding rock and stops.
Shockwave effect from TriStim perforation
The energy state of TriStim’s combined three charge shockwave delivers a significant increase in the pressure boundary condition, resulting in a wider perforation channel, and importantly enabling the break-up (rubblisation) of the rock matrix between the perforation channels, giving an improved internal architecture to the perforation channel.
- 85% Increased perforated area
- 3x’s (300%) Increased perforation tunnel volume
- 10% Increased penetration
The optimised perforating tunnel geometry is clearly visible in this scaled shot comparison where the TriStim tunnel geometry is overlaid on three single conventional shots.
Technical validation of geometry benefits
Read more about how the Finite Element Modelling was validated through API 19B Section IV testing, Thin Section Analysis and independent Computational Fluid Dynamics testing during our research and development stages.