The perforation often provides a vital connection to the reservoir for the effective initiation and propagation of a Hydraulic Frac. Applied “pre-frac” in tight plays, TriStim facilitates a significant reduction in Hydraulic Fracture initiation pressure, as well as significantly improving fracture placement control. Such benefits mean reductions in horsepower, manpower, water & chemicals, leading to increased NPV and the potential to access stranded resources that would otherwise not be exploited.
Complexities in Hydraulic Fracturing
A principal factor influencing the effectiveness and ability to frac are largely governed by the relative stresses surrounding the wellbore, extending into the reservoir beyond.
Orientation to the principal stresses of the field can have a significant influence on mitigating some of these effects, however, for a number of technical reasons this design objective is not always achievable.
Damage related heightened stresses surrounding the perforation tunnel, also have a substantial influence on both the initiation pressure and the resulting tortuosity of the hydraulic fracture treatment as it propagates away from the well-bore.
TriStim and Fracking
TriStim’s unique approach means that the perforations are less damaged enabling each collective bank of perforations to be in complete hydraulic communication with each other. This means that more fluid can be transported directly to the fracture initiation point resulting in lower treatment pressures and reduced risk of early screen-out. Better hydraulic communication also means increased Frack Treatment Potential.
The overarching benefit of perforating with TriStim is a less damaged perforation which leads to a reduction in initiation pressure. The resulting low tortuosity fracture, will provide a more conductive connection to the reservoir, resulting in a higher productivity fracture network.
How does TriStim achieve this?
Through the development test programme, TriStim has shown to deliver a perforation tunnel significantly reduced damage to that of a conventional system. Resulting directly from the benefits of convergent shockwaves, analysis has shown crushed zone removal through large areas of the combined perforation geometry, as well as providing evidence of unique “tip-fracture” effects around the convergent point of the TriStim tunnel.
Removal of such damage is strong evidence that the desired reduction in initiation pressure over a conventional perforated approach will be achieved.
Benefits for unconventional wells
Reducing the fracture initiation pressure means savings in horsepower, manpower, water, chemicals, equipment and logistics. Once again the knock-on effects can be major. For example:
- Savings in well construction costs due to lower fracture pressure and the potential to perform more fracs per well, opening access to previously stranded resources.
- Savings in water offsetting transportation bottlenecks and other causes of shortage.
- Savings in chemicals, water and other materials, plus reduced logistics requirements, adding up to reduced environmental footprint and a good PR story.
Fracking High Angle Wells
TriStim also delivers benefits when tracking high angle wells. Normal perforations tend to act in isolation which reduces the number of effective perforations active during fracture. This can cause increased fracture initiation tortuosity. However, because they are less damaged, TriStim perforations have the potential to develop greater hydraulic connections between each bank of perforations delivering a more successful fracture.
TriStim case studies
Case studies of recent deployments are being added as data becomes available.