What is unique about the TriStim perforation system?
TriStim is a unique and patented Delphian Ballistics design that adopts a charge configuration whereby each collection of three shaped charges are specifically angled to intersect at a predetermined distance from the well-bore, within the reservoir.
This creates a connected pathway, delivering a combined perforation channel with a significantly increased overall geometry, reduced overall perforation damage and potentially deeper penetration than is achieved with standard configuration systems. Through our extensive development testing programme, and in combination with further detailed modelling, this unique geometry has been verified as key towards delivering a more efficient / effective perforation channel when compared to conventional perforating techniques.
Are there any reservoir candidates considered unsuitable for TriStim?
TriStim would typically be targeted as a technology for conventional and unconventional reservoirs. Reservoirs, such as weak / unconsolidated reservoirs are at this stage not considered appropriate applications for TriStim. Any reservoir that has a targeted perforated completion design would be deemed appropriate for TriStim, unless the perforation strategy has been designed intentionally for sand control purposes.
Would re-perforating existing wells using the TriStim gun system deliver an appreciable uplift in well performance?
A significant performance advantage of the TriStim gun system is the unique perforation channel geometry. Achieving a fully connected channel geometry is a key driver behind the performance uplift directly observed from our test and field data. Optimised under-balancing of re-perforation candidates can be difficult to achieve, although beneficial to TriStim underbalancing has been proven to be a “non-critical” element behind the creation the TriStim tunnel geometry, therefore making this the ideal perforation solution for re-perforation applications.
What sizes are the TriStim gun system available in?
Currently the TriStim system has been developed and certified in four gun sizes – these are 2″, 2⅞”, 3⅛” and 4½”. Each of the current gun system sizes are deployable using conventional electric-line, wireline, and pipe (CT and TCP). Further expansion on the current size offering is already under development with the 3⅜” and 7″ TriStim gun systems is already underway.
Is it possible to set up TriStim with an optimised radial phasing?
A requirement of the TriStim perforation system is the utilisation of three shaped charges in combination to create a single connected TriStim tunnel. Intrinsic to this is a degree of compromise on radial phasing when compared to conventional high shot density (HSD) systems. Conventional HSD gun systems can be phased appropriately through 360o, with radial phasing governed directly through the shot density of the gun system being deployed. With the combined three shaped charge configuration used in TriStim it is not possible to get the same degree of radial phasing per foot as a conventional system can achieve. However, the vast majority of perforated intervals would typically be conducted over tens if not hundreds of feet therefore removing any design limitations for TriStim’s radial phasing optimisation over a typical length of perforated interval.
Does the use of TriStim reduce / limit the shot density of the gun system compared with conventional perforating systems?
TriStim’s unique and newly developed charge loading system means there are no compromises on the physical shot density of the gun system. The TriStim, using its new design features, will compete directly with the same like for like shape charge explosive weight and shot density as promoted with other conventional perforator systems. The current TriStim system sizes have been designed predominantly around standard 6 shots per foot. This is not to say that higher or lesser shot density systems could not be delivered. Increasing the overall shot density is not considered to be an issue but as with any gun system will often come at the cost of a size reduction in the shaped charge that can be used.
Can Delphian guarantee that the claimed performance uplift from TriStim will be achieved?
Given the inherent uncertainty and variability of the well and reservoir performance parameters it is never possible to provide guarantees over performance. However, through the use of the Delphian ProBallistics™ applications engineering process, working collaboratively with the client / end user, it is possible to develop a stronger understanding of the potential performance enhancement envelope, enabling appropriate management of expectations. This approach enable the end user / client to be much more engaged and therefore have a much clearer understanding of the realistic expectation increase following the application of TriStim.
How does Delphian support the deployment and the gun system into field the operations phase?
Delphian are committed to deliver best in class service in support of our client’s needs and this extends through the engineering design into operations phases. Delphian’s established partnership with our manufacturer and our collaborating service providers gives us the essential platform for manufacturing and distribution of the gun systems globally. Field support engineers will be on hand to ensure that the gun system assembly and handling is conducted to Delphian’s quality plan and standards. Similarly, if required Delphian also provide field engineering support through wells site supervision, to ensure the highest levels of operational service quality is delivered during deployment.
What shaped charge technology is available for use within the TriStim gun system?
TriStim has access to use various shaped charge technologies, offering Deep Penetrating, DP Optimised, Big Hole and Good Hole Shaped Charges. Each TriStim design is subject to a rigorous application engineering process – that includes shaped charge type and selection – to ensure that the appropriate charge technology is being used. Each gun system can incorporate some variation in charge design if a high degree of flexibility is required.
How much debris is created when perforating with the TriStim system?
TriStim utilises a perforating gun system design to overcome the problems of unwanted debris in a well. If required, a No Debris Gun System (NDG) leaves no debris in the well – while using the same standard steel-case shaped charges.
Can TriStim be used for Pre-Frac applications?
TriStim is an ideal perforation technology for Pre-Frac applications. Throughout the Section IV test programme, cores perforated using the TriStim system were sent for both CT and Thin Section analysis. Doing such further analysis revealed evidence of significant tip and perimeter fracturing, thought to be created as a direct consequence of the shock wave convergence. Such fracturing features are strong indicators of good break down properties being achieved when attempting hydraulic breakdown of the formation during a frac.
What track record does the TriStim gun system have for pre-frac applications?
Our track record is continually building. Please go to the TriStim case studies page to review the pre-frac field runs.
Is there any additional risk of damage to the casing/completion through the use of TriStim?
In contrast to some specialist, high energy, gun systems, TriStim uses conventional / standard shaped charge and ballistic components. It is through the innovative and unconventional system design that the combined energy from the individual shaped charges is harvested to much greater effect in order to deliver a more effective perforation channel. Within the well bore, the detonation effect is no more than would otherwise be felt through the detonation of a conventional perforation system. However within the formation, the enhancement effect is much more dramatic.
Is gun orientation possible for TriStim?
Like any other perforation gun system it is possible to use orientation systems to ensure best alignment of the perforation channels if this is a desired feature of the perforation design. Delphian can work in partnership with other service providers who do provide such technology.
Can TriStim be used for HPHT well/reservoir applications?
The TriStim gun system has been through a rigorous API testing and qualification / programme, with each of the currently available gun sizes (2″, 2⅞”, 3⅛” and 4½”) all achieving in excess of 20,000 psi collapse rating. In addition, access to world leading shaped charge and ballistics componentry means that we are able to design and build the TriStim gun system for high temp applications, i.e. up to 450oF.